Longevity and Rejuvenation Science - natural remedies

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Research Results

Interesting articlesmixed with my personal notes  Most references have been listed.

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Siddha (South Indian - Dravidian)

General Philosophy and Concepts of Therapeutics:

“Only for the attainment of immortality of Yogis and Siddhars “- 


Preservation of vital energy of the body by diverting the internal secretions of the circulation of blood by control of breathing through yoga practice. 


Conservation of sperm by using it for regeneration.  


“For prolonging the life of man(in general), freed from degenerative disease” - 

Use of “universal salt” such as “Muppua” in Tamil, prepared by certain specialized Siddhic process for rejuvenation.  (I believe this is specially prepared white calcite ash used in the Tibetan Chiudlen tradition).

  

Use of calcined powders prepared from metals and minerals such as mercury, sulphur, mica, gold, copper, iron, etc..


Use of drugs prepared from certain rare Indian herbs.


The control of breathing, according to the yoga system, leads to rejuvenation, and rejuvenation thus forms an integral part of immortality.  This kind of Kayakalpa is prescribed only for yogis practicing celibacy who have dedicated their life to the service of God and for the good of the world.


Now let us, therefore, turn to the process of Kalpa as stated, using certain Indian plants for securing long life.  If the Kalpa drug is taken at the age of fifty, he will find rejuvenated as a young man of sixteen.


 Siddhars hold that in the upper edge of spinal cord in the cervical region and above the Tonsil, there is a portion similar to that of a conch and a disc.  Here a substance, namely mucus or phlegm, is formed.   It has its own poisonous effect on man and injurious to his well being and good health. This is called Pitha Neer in Tamil. This is described as the eclipse intercepting the union of sun and moon in the cerebrum as well as the passage for the secretion namely Amirtham (Nectar).
 
 It is therefore obvious that those who concentrate on Kayakalpa treatment, should make an attempt to get rid of this poisonous effect first.  Should this poisonous substance be completely emitted through mouth, the spinal cord will then be opened, and the nectar begins to secrete and enters into the blood stream.  The cells in different organisms thus obtain a “new type of nucleic acid” to rejuvenate themselves.


The herb recommended by Siddhas for emitting the poisonous substance is Eclipta alba (Golden coloured), Karisalankanni in Tamil), A paste of the entire plant mixed with ghee should suitably be brushed up the uvula as well as in and around the tonsil to enable the mucus to vomit out through the mouth; the process should be repeated once early morning for a period of 40 days for the complete removal of poisonous effects from the throat.  The sample plant may also be used as salad in diet to rejuvenate the glands in the entire system.


The next obstacle in prolonging the life span is constipation.  The very first injunction for the treatment of Kayakalpa is that the bowel should be completely cleaned and evacuated first.  Enemas are used to promote bowel evacuation by softening the faces and lubricating the rectal mucosa.  The principal type of lubricating enemas employed is the juice of the Aloe Indica (Kattalai) in Tamil mixed with castor oil.


The next most popular drug in Kayakalpa used as laxative is Terminalia Chebula (Kadukkai) in Tamil.  Its virtue is highly appreciated by Siddhas and used against all internal ailments.  Decoction of Myrobalans is a safe and mild purgative unattended by griping or other ill effects.


The kernels of the myrobalans should be purified as per Siddha Pharmacopoeia the seed removed, and powdered before use.  For chronic constipation, Operculina turpethum is also recommended to be used with myrobalans.


The kernels of the myrobalans should be purified as per Siddha Pharmacopoeia and powdered before use.  For chronic constipation, Operculina turpethum is also recommended to be used with myrobalans.


The following is the direction to be observed while taking the powdered myrobalans as per Kayakalpa treatment:-


 During June and July, to be taken with palm jaggery.


 During August and September to be taken with purified Sodium chloride Impura (Induppu)


During October and November to be taken with sugar.


During December and January to be taken with decoction of dried ginger.


During February and March to be taken with honey.


During April and May to be taken with Amuri(an elixir possibly extracted from Musa paradisiaca L . An unpublished Siddha palm leaf manuscript Kanranadi Vakkiyam describes preparation of Amuri from Banana tree - also extracted from banana leaf).  However because of disagreements in translations of encrypted scriptures, urine of ass, goat, cow, and human beings, water from mist or deep-sea, liquor, white albumin of egg, mother's milk and some herbal juices have also been understood to be Amuri. 


After completion of the above course, the next drug to be taken is Piper nigrum.


In the Kayakalpa treatment also, pepper has to be taken daily five numbers with Amuri or any other suitable media. It should be increased at the rate of 5 per day to reach up to the maximum of one hundred.


The next one is ˜Karanthaiâ This is a general term used in Tamil for basil plant.


Take thick bottom steams of Tinospora cordifolia (Shindil Kodi) and purify it according to Siddha System.  Prepare starch from this moon creeper.  Make fine powder and sugar 4:1, Mix well 20 grains twice a day in empty stomach.  Add powdered sugar 8 : 1 and take 40 days.


Take the riped bark of Azadirachta Indica Margosa  (Vembu) of one hundred years old. Purify the bark, make it fine powder soak in the juice of Abrus precatorius with black seeds (Karun Kuntri) and allow it to dry.


Take equal quantity of each of the following herbs: Eclipta prostrate (Golden coloured Karisalai), Acalypha indica (Kuppaimeni) and Coldenia procumbens (Sir-Serupadai) small variety.


Equal quantity of the roots of the Indigofera aspalathoides (Sivanar Vembu) and the seeds of Celastrus paniculatus (Valuluvai) should be powdered first. Prepare medicinal oil out of it.  It is called Kuzhi Thailam in Tamil.  Add Cuminum cyminum (Siragam) and sufficient powdered sugar and mix well.


Take equal part of each of the following herbs.  Solanum trilobatum (Dhuthuvalai) Allangium Salvifolium (Alinjil) seeds of Celastrus aniculatus (Valuluvai) Myristica fragrants (Jadikkai) Roots of the Plumbago indica (or zeylanica) (Chitramulam) Rhizomes of Curculigo orhioides (Nilapanai Kilangu) Golden coloured flowers of Cassia fistula (Porkontrai).  Make fine powder of all the eight drugs.  Take 14 grains twice a day with ghee for 40 days.


Take the eggs of black fowls, keep them within a heap of rock salt in an earthern pot and close the mouth completely air-tight.  Let it be then buried into the earth for two months, for condensation of the eggs.  After taking the pot out of the pit, each egg should be boiled in the juice of the root of the Corallocarpus epigaeus (Akasagarudan Kilangu).  Remove the outer shell of the egg and have it tasted before use.  Half an egg a day for 20 days.


Take purified Karpoor Silajat and grind well with the white of the eggs of fowls; when the drug is well ground, it should be made into a number of small discs that are to be dried in sun.  The drug then is to be subjected to the process of calcinations, according to Siddha System of medicine.


Take equal parts of the following herbs, rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica, Fruits of Embilica officinalis, Seeds of Azadirachta indica, Piper nigrum, Fruits of Terminnalia Chebula.  Grind these five drugs into fine paste with cow milk.  The whole thing is boiled on low fire, stirring often.  Add butter and mix well. This oil paste should be applied to the body-from head to foot.  This is to be used externally for taking bath twice in a week.


(This is an example of the specificity and complexity of the system.   What is listed is not considered the complete process. Without a complete process the safety of these measures are questionable and we do not advise you undergo these directions without proper guidance from an expert that understands the myriad of complications that could arise.)


REFERENCES


   1      Thirumoolar, Thirumandiram-3000, (Vidhyarathnakaram Press), 1940.


    2      Thiruvalluva Nayanar, Pancha rathnam-500, (Rathnanayakar & Sons, Chennai), 1968, 199.


    3      Agatiar, Antharanga deeksha vidhi, (Thamarai noolagam, Chennai), 283.


    4      Agatiar, Paripooranam-1200, (Sri Ramachandra Vilasa Press, Madurai), 1934, 123.


    5      Thiruv1llluva Nayanar, Pancha rathnam-500, (Rathnanayakar & Sons, Chennai), 1968, 168.


    6      Thiruvalluva Nayanar, Pancha rathnam-500, (Rathnanayakar & Sons, Chennai), 1%8, 143.


    7      Thiruvalluva Nayanar, Pancha rathnam-500, (Rathnanayakar & Sons, Chennai), 1968,56.


    8      Thiruvalluva Nayanar, Pancha rathnam-500, (Rathnanayakar & Sons, Chennai), 1968,39.


    9      Agastiar- Kandar nadi vakkiyam, (Unpublished Siddha Tamil palm leaf manuscript).


 10      Agastiar- Muppu vazhalai suttiram-12 (Thamarm Pathippagam, Chennai), 1992.


 11      Thiruvalluva Nayanar, Pancha rathnam-500, (Rathnanayakar & Sons, Chennai), (1968), 42.


 12      Thiruvalluvar, Gyana vettiyan-1500, (Parabrahama Mudrakshara Salai), 1874, 6.


 13      Saravana muthu pillai, Nijanada bodam- Pathinen siddhar gyana korvai, (Thirumagal Accagam, Chennai), 1993.


 14      Thiruvalluva nayanar, Navarathna chintamani, (Thamarai Padipagam, Chennai), 388.


 15      Duke James A, Stephen M & Beckstrom Sternberg, Handbook of Medicinal Mints, (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Washington D.C.), 2000.


 16      News Scan, Banana potassium and stroke, Indian J Exp Biol, 40 (2002) 1322.


 17      Gawthorne J M, Howell J Mc C & White C L, Trace Element Metabolism in Men and Animals, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York), 1982.


 18      Manu Chair Ebadi, Pharmacodynamic Basis of herbal medicine, (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Washington), 2002.


 19      Angle's Farrerons & Joseph M., Monograph on The Moon's Influence on Agriculture, (Dilago, Lerida Publications), 1981, 189.


 20      Graviou E, A complex rhythm problem: the possibility of a lunar modulation of plant function, J Interdisciplinary Cycle Research, 9(4), (1978), 243-268.


 21      Mikulecky M & Rovensky J, Gout attacks and lunar cycle, Medical Hypothesis, 55(1) (2000), 24-25.


 22      Kollerstrom N & Tomassen G J M, Note on human response to the lunar synodic cycle, Proceedings On First International Congress On Ceo-Cosmic Relation: The Earth and its Macro-Environment, Netherlands, (1989), 1990, 157-160.


 23      Aman, Medicinal secrets of your food, (Indo- American Hospital, Mysore), 1969, 186.


 24      Pandit Chandra Bhan Singh, Halli chikitsay, (Kannada), Mysore.


 25      Nadkarni K M, Indian Meteria Medica, Vol I, 3 rd edn, (India Popular Prakashan Pvt. Ltd), 1962, 824.


 26      Murugesa Mudaliar K C, Materia Medica. Vol.l, (Tamil Nadu Siddha Medical Board, Chennai), 1988,636.


 27      Thiruvalluva Nayanar, Pancha rathnam-500, (Rathnanayakar & Sons, Chennai), 1968.


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AYURVEDA





Ayurveda (India)


General Philosophy:




(this up to first reference list is from the book 

Rasayana, herbs for longevity, by H.S. Puri

First published 2003


by Taylor & Francis


11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE


Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada


by Taylor & Francis Inc,


29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001


Taylor & Francis is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group


© 2003 Taylor & Francis, Ayurveda, the Ancient Science of Hindus and Indians, dates back about 7000 years.


It has eight branches, one of which is Rasayana Tantra. The word rasayana literally


means the path that rasa takes (rasa: the primordial tissue or plasma; ayana: path)


(Charaka - author of foundational text charaka samhita). It is also considered as the science which restores youth, alleviates suffering


(diseases) and bestows longevity (Sushruta - author of foundation text - sushruta samhita). It is believed in Ayurveda, that the quali-

ties of the rasa-dhatu influence the health of other dhatus (tissues) of the body. Hence,


any medicine that improves the quality of rasa are called as rasayanas, resulting in the


strengthening or promoting of the qualities and health of all tissues of the body. These


rasayana plants are said to possess the following properties:


– Prevent ageing


– Re-establish youth


– Strengthen life


– Strengthen brain and mind


– Prevent disease


– Promote healthy longevity


Rasayana Tantra appears to have been practiced as an independent clinical discip-

line primarily as a positive health medicine. With the passage of time this important


branch of knowledge has ceased to be in practice (except the knowledge and use of a


few herbs) in its appropriate form. Comprehensive efforts are needed to revive this


useful discipline for the welfare of humanity at large.


The ability to adapt to a given habitat is a distinctive feature of all living organ-

isms. Any type of demand (external or internal) in this habitat elicits either a specific


or non-specific response (Selye,1983). This non-specific response to any demand has


been defined as stress and the demand as stressor by Hans Selye. As per his description


there are three stages of response to any given situation of stress, which together


constitute the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) (Selye,1946), the stages being a) alarm


reaction b) resistance and c) exhaustion. Thus, the ability to develop resistance and to


maintain it is crucial for coping with a variety of stressors encountered in human life.


The desire to control the coping mechanisms has led to the origin of the science of


adaptation. The branch of Ayurveda which deals with the science of adaptation is called


Rasayana Tantra. Ayurveda may not coin the term adaptogen, but those practices, or


substances / herbs / medicines which help a person cope with his day to day stresses are


known in Ayurveda as Rasayanas. Modern research has proved that herbs listed as


Rasayanas possess adaptogenic properties as well (Dahanukar, 1986.).


All of the above imply that they improve and increase the resistance of the body.


The scientific studies carried out on most of the rasayana herbs showed that these


plants non-specifically activated the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and other com-

ponents of the immune system as well (Dahanukar, 1986). Knowing that the central


nervous system, endocrine system and the immune system participate in intense cross-

talk (Ader et al., 1990; Glaser and Kiecolt-Glaser, 1994), it was easy to hypothesize


that by acting on the immune system these rasayanas could exert broad-based effects


by initiating a massive cascade of events involving various neurotransmitters, hor-

mones and amines of the stress response cycle.


With the emerging science of ecogenetics, it is becoming evident that genetic


predisposition can alter responses to the external environment. However, at present


most of the data is on diseases, which manifest in genetically predisposed persons on


exposure to the external stressors. Can rasayanas (or adaptogens or immunomodulators)


influence genetic control and favour the maintenance of homeostasis in stressful situ-

ations? The research on Amruta (Tinospora cordifolia) opens up a new vision in this


direction, as early experiments have shown that it increases the bone marrow proliferat-

ive fractions leading to leucocytosis. A slight increase in dose reverses this process and


inducing apoptosis, and this apparent paradox was believed to be because of its effect on


c-myc, a gene that causes both proliferation as well as induces apoptosis depending on


the environment. These are some of the recent advances seen in the field of rasayana


drugs. Looking at it it appears that rasayana herbs act as:


– an adaptogen


– an immunostimulant


– an immunomodulater


– pro-host probiotic


– anti-mutagenic


But Ayurveda has much more in it to be included under rasayana therapy. Looking


at only a few herbs will be doing an injustice to the holistic approach of Ayurveda,


hence a brief description of Rasayana Tantra may be necessary here.


According to Ayurvedic concept rasayana therapy simultaneously affects the


body and the mind and bring about physical and psychic improvement. This therapy


prevents the effects of early ageing, develops intelligence and increases the body-

resistance against diseases.


Rasayana means vitalizing / rejuvenating. In the words of Charaka with a rasayana,


one obtains longevity, regains youth, vitality and vigour, gets a sharp memory, intellect and


freedom from diseases, gets a lustrous complexion and the strength of a horse. Sushruta is more


specific, describing a rasayana as one which, is anti-ageing, increases life-span, promotes


intelligence and memory and increases resistance to disease.


Any drug, diet or conduct that leads to the replenishment of the dhatus and enlivens


the body and mind is rasayana. Rasayana not only rejuvenates the body and mind, it


also prevents disease. There are a number of drugs/materials described which possess


the qualities of maintaining health, prolonging life and warding off diseases. They are


all grouped as rasayana in Ayurveda. A close look at the concept of rasayana of


Ayurveda and various research findings on rasayana suggests that rasayana therapy/


drug may have its effect on our ojas, immunity, resistance, etc. Hence the following points


related to the concept of resistance, immunity as described in Ayurveda may be useful:


1. The qualitative, quantitative and functional balance of the body-elements main-

tains strength which, in general, causes resistance to diseases. Raktam (Blood) has


Foreword ix


been attached much importance because it’s normal condition reflects good health


and general resistance power.


2. Ayurveda has described a separate substance named ojas which has been said


to be the essence of all the dhatus and is considered to be an excellent body


element. Therefore, the excellence of the body in totality is ojas. It reflects


the excellent performance of the man as a whole. Therefore, resistance power of


the body depends on the quality and quantity of ojas.


3. Bala (strength or power) has been classified as sahaja (natural, hereditary), kalakrita


(variable as per age and season) and yuktikrita (acquired by good diet, drug


and exercise etc.). This is why some families have a specific resistance to specific


diseases; some diseases are born in a specific age and season and generally speaking


those, who are well built, fall less ill.


4. Again the bala (resistance) has been divided into vyadhi pratibandhakatwa and


vyadhi bala virodhitwa bala. The former is the specific resistance against


a specific disease so that those diseases will never afflict the man. Today, vaccines


substitute this type of resistance. The latter does not stop the onset of the disease


but can only minimise its severity. In another context it has been said that the


overweight or emaciated, those of weak build, who have a deficient diet and who


are mentally weak, are more susceptible to disease (Ch.Su.28/7).


There are various ways of classifying rasayana therapy in Ayurveda. They are basi-

cally either based on the method of administering the rasayana therapy, such as kuti-

pravesika (indoor) or vataatapika (outdoor); or based on the effect. Kaamya (invigorating


and vitalizing), medhya (promoting intellectual factors), achara (address psycho-somatic


activities), naimittika (used to promote resistance against disease following illness)


and vrishya (virilifying or sex-stimulant). Also remember that Rasayana Tantra is one


of the eight branches (Asthanga Ayurveda) of Ayurveda. And, before administering


rasayana the individual needs to undergo the shodana/panchakarma (purification therapy)


process. Kaya-kalpa is nothing but another name for rasayana.


The importance of Ayurveda in countries outside of India continues to increase. In


order to meet the demand in the United Kingdom for qualified personnel, there


has been established, for the first time in the UK, a first degree course in the subject


at Thames Valley University. It is a three-year degree course with the opportunity


afterwards for continuing the course in India for a fourth year at Kottakal (or Manipal


University). This degree course is run in conjunction with the world’s first Charitable


Ayurvedic Hospital outside of India and Sri Lanka which is based in London.


In the light of the extreme importance of rasayana in Ayurvedic therapy it is


appropriate that Dr Harsharnjit Puri’s book on rasanaya is being published by Taylor


& Francis. I congratulate him on producing this excellent reference book with detailed


explanations on the activity of each drug.


However, as a persistent defender of the intellectual property and patent rights of


Ayurvedic doctors and Indian Ayurveda, I hope that this book will be read by those


with a spirit of learning and not as a commercial tool for attempts to synthesize these


medicines or for using them as herbs in non-Ayurvedic traditions.


Gopi Warrier


Chairman


Ayurvedic Charitable Hospital


British Ayurvedic Medical Council


x Foreword


References


Ader R, Felten D and Cohen M (1990). Interactions between the brain and the immune


system, Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (pp. 30, 561–602.)


Dahanukar, S A (1986). Study of influence of plant products on Adaptive Processes, PhD


thesis, Dept of Pharmacology and therapeutics, University of Mumbai, Mumbai.


Dahanukar, S A, Nirmala M Thette, Nirmala N Rege (1999). Immunomodulatory Agents


from plants, ed. By M Wagner, Birkhausen Verlag Basel / Switzerland, pp. 289–323.


Glaser R and Kiecolt, Glaser J (1994). Handbook of human stress and Immunity, Academic


Press, San Diego.


Selye H (1946). General adaptation syndrome and diseases of adaptation. J Clin Endocrinol. 6,


pp. 117–230


Selye H (1983). The stress concept: past, present, and future, In, Stress Research, Issues for the


Eighties, ed. By C L Cooper, (pp.1–21) John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Ayurveda, the Indian holistic healthcare system encompasses traditional medicines with a principle of creating harmony and maintaining balance within the natural rhythms of the body. Rasayana is one of the branches of Ayurveda frequently used as rejuvenant therapy to overcome many discomforts and prevent diseases. It has been reported that rasayanas have immunomodulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions.

Ayurveda considers aging as Jaivika swabhava or biological in nature of the living being and believes in the natural cycle of birth- senscience-death-rebirth as the very destiny of life (Singh, 2008).




Tridosha  Dhatus and Agni in Aging 

As per the fundamental principles of Ayurveda the balance state of vata, pitta   and kapha doshas maintains the health of an individual by controlling the physiological factors in the body. Ayurveda Susruta Samhita has clearly emphasized that the vata dosha increases greatly during old age (Sharma, 1999). So it is responsible for most of the manifestations of aging. There are tendencies of gradual diminution of all dhatus, indriyas, ojas during aging be- cause in old age vata predominates and it’s fundamental properties precipitates the sosana and kshaya  of different dhatus which are responsible for the most of the manifestations of aging. Ayurveda has elaborated that Agni represents the digestive and metabolic functions of the body which consists(but is not limited to) the digestive juices and different kinds of hormones, enzymes, and co-enzymes

The optimum activity of Agni maintains the vigor and vitality of an individual and also keeps up the growth, development of the body (Singh, 1998). According to Ayurveda with the advancing age Ahara rasa will not be able to produce satisfactorily in elderly persons by nourishing, since their tissues are over matured by geriatric decay (Sharma, 1999).

Importance of Rasayana on Aging 

According to modern medicine, aging is probably the result of the breakdown of the cellular safety nets. Some of the causes are unavoidable such as ultraviolet radiation, free radicals and genetic effects, environmental and behavioral consequences. Free radicals are highly reactive and can do tremendous damage to the cell. They are capable of attacking the healthy cells of the body causing them to lose their structure and their function. It appears to be a major contribution to aging and degenerative disorders in aging. Thus cell has responded to this threat by creating various “enzymes” that bind to free radicals and inactivate them which are called anti-oxidants. It has been reported by scientific studies that Ayurvedic rasayana formulations are potent anti-oxidant drugs and that they are also having immunomodulatory, anti stress and cytoprotective properties. 

Ayurveda Rasayana Tantra which is exclusively committed to the science of aging and its prevention with the help of rasayana - rejuvenation therapy. It consists of drugs and specific therapeutic measures which act on Dhatus, Agni, Srotas in the body and results healthy tissue development in the body. Ultimately it gives to the person long life, immunity, strength, happiness and intellect promo- tion. So all these improvements are considered as anti-aging effects. 

As per the Ayurvedic principles the aging is a swabhava  or natural phenomena of life (Sharma, 1999). Charaka samhita mentions that the functional diminution of dhatus, ojas, strength of sense organs, power of cognition, strength of the body and valour are gradually decreasing during old age (Sharma & Dash, 2002). So effect of therapy of Rasayana affords comprehensive physiologic and metabolic restoration and gives important contribution to minimize these difficulties, including mental development and resistance against diseases among elders. Because Rasayana drugs and therapeutic, their measures act on Dhatus, Agni, Srotas and produce healthy tissues development in the body and in turn provide a person longevity, immunity, resistance against disease, strength, happiness and intellect promotion in the mind (Singh,2008).

From Ayurveda view point the Agni denotes the digestion and metabolism in the body (Sharma & Dash, 2002). It is considered to be the root or the most important sustaining factor of living beings. Agni has been observed by using Anumana pariksha with reference to the Abyavaharanashakti and Jaranashakti in the human body (Shar- ma & Dash, 2002). 


Aging is a multidimensional process of physical, psychological and social change. Ayurveda Rasayana therapy has given powerful contribution to overcome age related disorders and act essentially on nutrition dynamics and rejuvenate the body and the mind. 

The study referred in this article has been carried out to assess the effect of Guduchyadi Rasayana medicine on Agnibala, Dehabala and Sattvabala on elderly individuals. 138 patients were registered to the study and divided in to two groups. The drugs were prepared as granules form and administered three times per day and continued for three months. Result of the study revealed that the trial group obtained statistically significant improvement in the signs and symptoms of Agnibala, Dehabala and Sattvabala on elderly individuals.

In this study it was found that the majority of the elderly individuals were having derangement of Agni. After administration of Guduchyadi Rasayana, a better Improvement was achieved. Because most of the ingredients in the trial drug possess properties increasing digestive functions in the body. Tinospora cordifolia wild, Acarenthus aspera Linn, Embelia ribes Burm.f., Convolvulus-pluri- cauli schois, Terminalia chebula Zetz, Saussurea lappa and Acorus calamus Linn. Furthermore, the pharmacological study has proven that Acetone extraction of Saussurea lappa and costunolide which is major chemical constituents of Saussurea lappa, inhibit ulcer formation and increased bile secretion in mice (Yamahara et al. 1985). More over, that embelin which is the 

28. Natural 29. Inference 

  

112 Sri Lanka Journal of Advanced Social Studies Vol. 3 - No. 1-January- June -2013 

major chemical constituents of Embelia ribes Burm.f., was found to enhance the absorptive and digestive functions of rat intestine (Gup- ta et al. 1991). The trial group obtained better relief than control group. The optimum activity of Agni provides enthusiasm, vigor and vitality of an individual. The Caraka Samhita clearly emphasizes the effect of Rasayana therapy and most of the ingredients of Guduchyadi Rasayana are having property of Rasayana (Sharma & Dash, 1996).


Effect on Dehabala 

Regarding the effect on Bala vriddhi, the comparative effect shows statistically highly significance at the level of P<0.01. So trial drug provides better improvement than control drug. 

In Ayurveda Ojas is known as Bala in the body (Sharma, 1999). It provides strength to the body in terms of physical, mental, immunological strength and resistance to diseases (Singh, 2005). The majority of aged individuals are found to have negatively affected Bala in the body. Furthermore, pharmacological studies have proven that Guduchi, Vidanga, Sankapushpi, Kustha and Shatavari ingredients possess the the property of immunostimulant. Moreover, the water and ethanolic extract of Guduchi stem inhibited the cyclophosphamide induced immuno suppression (Manjikar et al., 2000). It is proved that immunomodulatory effects are ascribed to the root of Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) (Rege et al., 1989). Furthermore, control group also has shown considerable improvement of Bala due to its property Balya(Various activities such as immunomodulator, bulk promoting, nutritional, etc. that enhance strength, immunity, bulk of the body resulted by the use of medicinal or dietary substances are termed in total as Balya) particular to the ingredients of Ghee and Sharkara (Sharma, 1999).


Effect on Sattvabala 

So far, the mental health of the elderly patients of the study referred to is a concern of the majority of the patients - they were not seen in a happy and healthy mood before the treatment. It was found that they were under different mental disorders such as anxiety, anger, fear, depression, worries etc as they were not having proper sleep. In Ayurveda Caraka Samhita has mentioned that the mental tension disturbs the sound sleep. It has been observed Guduchyadi Rasayana has given better improvement of sattvabala after the treatment. This enable person to subsiding mental tension and the potencies have already proven by the pharmacological studies. The table 4 has illustrated the phar- macologically proved therapeutic potencies of ingredients of the trial drug (Billore et al., 2005; Sharma et al.,2001; Sharma et al., 2000).

Table 4: Therapeutic Potential of Some Ingredients of Guduchyadi Rasayana 

 

Ingredients 

Guduchi Shankapushpi 

Vacha Haritaki 

Botanical Names 

Tinosporacordifolia Wild 

Convolvulus Pluricaulis Chois 

Acorus Calamus Linn 

Terminalia Chebula Zetz 

Pharmacological Properties 

Antistress, CNS Depressant 

Anti-stress, Anti-anxiety, Sedative, CNS Depressant, 

Sedative , Tranquilizer, CNS Depressant 

Antistress , Purgative , Hypotensive 




Effect on Haematological Parameters 

It can be decided that the Rakta dhatu is improved as a result of treatment with Guduchyadi Rasayana which is attributed to the pharmacokinetic properties of the ingredients (Sharma et al., 2001; Sharma et al., 2002). 

Further , pharmacological studies have proved that the Vacha, Haritaki and Kustha are having antibacterial properties, while Apamarga having antimicrobial and antibacterial properties, Vidanga having  antibiotic and anti tubercular properties of, Sankhapushpi  having antimicrobial and anti inflammatoryproperties of, Shatavari having properties of phagocytic and antibacterial (Billore et al., 2005; Sharma et al., 2001). Those potentials may have reduced ESR(erythrocyte sedimentation rate) value. Hence it gives valuable information that the Guduchyadi Rasayana provides better health status to the elderly patients. Moreover, Guduchi, Vidanga and Kustha possess properties of Immunostimulant. This has an impact on neuro, humoral immunity system which is exhibited by maintaining normal Lymphocytic count.

Effect on Biochemical Parameters 

Fasting Blood Sugar, Serum Protein, Serum Creatinine and SGPT values were within the normal limits in both groups before the treatment and remained normal even after the treatment. Further normal value of SGPT reveals that the both drugs do not have any toxic effects to the patients during treatments. 

On the basis of reduction of serum cholesterol values it has been revealed that Guduchyadi Rasayana gives support to tissue metabolism to be normalized. So it reacts as a normalization of all ongoing physiological, chemical, molecular and atomic processes in the body. Hence serum cholesterol has come to the normal level after the treatment. Further, Pharmacological studies have proven that Haritaki and Kustha are having Medohara effect (Sharma et al., 2001; Billore et al., 2005).


The conclusion of the study concluded that the trial drug Guduchyadi Rasayana has following potentials by which the deranged Agnibala, Dehabala and Sattvabala of aged people have been improved.The trial drug normalizes the function of Agni and thereby it regularizes digestion and tissue metabolism in elderly individuals and provided strength to the body.Furthermore, it has given better improved Sattvabala with the potentials of anti-stress, anti-depressant, anxiolytic, sedative and tranquilizer. Moreover, that Guduchyadi Rasayana has provided haemopoietic, hypolipidaemic, and antioxidant and nontoxic effects on elders. So the trial drug Guduchyadi Rasayana can be used as an effective treatment in the management of Age related disorders.

Antioxidant Activity of the Trial Drug 

The data of this study revealed that the Guduchyadi Rasay- ana has its potency of anti-oxidant activity that helped combat Age- ing. The radical scavenging activity of the sample was calculated as percentage inhibition activity compared to absorbance in assay control and expressed as IC50 value 101.8+- 7.0 μg/ ml. This property would be helped to combat Ageing.


Ayurveda is considered holistic, since it takes into consideration body, mind and spirit as a whole.[1,2] It also includes concepts of rejuvenation. Of Ayurveda's eight branches, ‘Rasayana’ is considered the primary method for maintaining health and vigor. Rejuvenation therapy can help the elderly to regain vigor and youthfulness,[3] overcome drowsiness and negate fatigue. It helps preserve harmony in the three psychobiological dimensions known as doshas,[1] biological rhythms which regulate the entire functioning of the physiology.[4]


Rasayanas constitute a group of single or polyherbal preparations, like the ones mentioned in the study referred to, made from plant extracts, are commonly used to improve health and longevity. They have been reported to improve memory, intelligence, youthfulness, lustre, complexion and efficiency.[4,5] Examples include Bramha rasayana (BR), Narasimha rasayana, Ashwagandha rasayana, Amruth Prash, Chyavana Prash, and Student rasayana, and many others. In contrast to single chemical medicines, complex formulations such as these may have multiple benefits.


BR is a case in point. It is recommended for management of mental conditions, including anxiety, poor cognition and lack of concentration. In this regard, it has been shown to improve learning and memory in mice[4], but, in addition, antioxidant[12,13] and immunostimulatory[14,15] activity have been reported. Furthermore, it has been found to decrease palpable tumor incidence, and to reduce the tumor weight in MAT-LyLu cell inoculated Copenhagen rats.[10] In addition, treated animals showed significant reductions in Factor VIII, pro-angiogenic factors like VEGF, MMP-9 and MMP-2, suggesting that the rasayana may also have anti-angiogenic properties.[10,11]


In general, comprehensive quality evaluation[7] for possible side effects[8] has not been established to the satisfaction of modern medicine. In the case of rasayanas, most research has focused on mechanisms of known actions, and relatively littlework has been done in relation to genotoxicity. In the case of BR, for example, little information regarding possible genotoxicity is available. In view of its many other effects, potential genotoxicity should be assessed. The present investigations were therefore undertaken to study potential genotoxic effects of Brahma rasayana in mice by analyzing chromosomal aberrations, sperm abnormalities, mitotic index and the body weight.

The genotoxic potential of many rasayanas remains to be evaluated. However, there has been one scientific study undertaken to assess the role of Brahma rasayana(BR), one of the most famous rasayana medicines in Ayurveda, on genotoxicity in vivo in a mouse test system. The older mice (9 months) were orally fed with the rasayana medicine for 8 weeks. The treated groups showed no signs of dose-dependent toxicity at the dosage levels tested. The body weight loss/gain and feed consumption were unaffected at tested doses. Furthermore, sperm abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations were insignificant in the treatment group when compared to controls. However, there was a marginal increase in sperm count in the BR treated animals. These findings clearly indicate that there are no observed adverse genotoxic effects elicited by BR in experimental animals such as mice.




References 

Agrawal, S., & Baghel, M.S. (2008). Effect of shireeshadi ghanavati in the management of tamaka shwasa. AYU Journal,29 (3), 130. 

Brahmasankar, S.B. (2002).Yogaratnakara, rasayanadhikara. New Delhi: Chaukhamba Publication. 

Billore,K.V.,Yelne,M.B., Dennis, T.J.(2005). Database on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda vol:7 245-435. New Delhi: Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha. 

Gupta,S., Sanyal,S., & Kanvar,U. (1991). Effect of embelin a male fertility agent on absorptive and digestive functions of rat intestine. J ethno- pharmacol, 33, 203-212. 

Manjikar, P.N., Jolly, C.I., & Narayanan, S. (2000). Comparative studies of the immunomodulatory activity of Tinospora Cordifolia and Tinospora Sinensis. Fitoterapia, 71, 254-257. 

Rege,N.N., Nazareth,H.M., Isaac,A., Karandikar,S.M., & Dahanukar,S.A. (1989). Immunotherapeutic modulation of intraperitoneal adhesions byAsperagus racemosus. J Postgrad Med, 35,199-203. 

Singh, G. (2005). Ayurveda: A complete guide. Jamnagar: Shubharish Ayurved Publisher. 

Singh, R.H.(1998).The holistic principles of Ayurvedic medicine. New Delhi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan. 


Singh, R.H.(2008). Contemporary strength of Ayurvedic geriatrics. National Workshop proceedings on Ayurveda and siddha for geriatric health care. held on 26th - 24th ,Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, Department of AYUSH, New Delhi, India. 

Sharma,P.C., Yelne, M.B., & Dennis,T.J.(2000).Database on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda: Vol. 1. New Delhi: Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha. 

Sharma, P.C., Yelne, M.B., & Dennis,T.J. (2001). Database on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda: Vol. 3. New Delhi: Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha. 

Sharma, P.C., Yelne, M.B., & Dennis,T.J.(2002). Database on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda: Vol. 5. New Delhi: Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha. 

Sharma, P. V. (1999). Susruta samhita:Sutrasthana.14-45. New Delhi: chaukhamba visvabharati. 

Sharma, R.K.,& Dash,B.(1996).Agnivesha’s charaka samhita: Chikitsa st- hana;1:7-8. Varansi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series. 

Sharma, R.K.,& Dash,B.(2002). Agnivesha’s charaka samhita: Vimanastha- na 4-8. Varansi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series. 

Yamahara,J.,Kobayashi,M.,Miki,K.,Kosuka,M.,Sawada,T.,&Fujimura,H. (1985). Cholagogic and antiulcer effect of saussureae radix and its active components. Chem Pharm Bull, 33,1285-1288.


Concepts of Therapeutics:

Sri Lanka Journal of Advanced Social Studies Vol. 3 - No. 1-January- June -2013 



Male swiss albino mice aged 9 months and weighing 35-40 g were employed. All were reared in the Manipal University animal house, and maintained under standard conditions. To eliminate influence of weight variation on induction of chromosomal aberrations, animals of identical weight (36 g) were employed in one set of experiments. They were provided with standard diet and water ad libitum.

Phyto-medicine


Brahma rasayana (Batch Nos. 8647 and 50323) was obtained from Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakal, India. Its stated contents include extracts of the following plants: Terminalia chebula (Pathya), Phyllanthus emblica (Dhatri), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Twak), Elettaria cardamomum (Ela), Cyperus rotundus (Musta), Curcuma longa (Rajani), Piper longum (Pippali), Aquilaria agallocha (Agaru), Santalum album (Chandana), Centella asiatica (Mandukaparni), Atropa belladona (Kanaka), Convolvulus pluricaulis (Shankhpushpi), Acorus calamus (Vacha), Cyperus scariosus (Plava), Glycyrrhiza glabra (Yashtyahwa), Embelia ribes (Vidanga), Ghee (Sarpi), Sesamum oil (Taila), Milk (Kshaudra), Sugar candy (Sitopala), Desmodium gangeticum (Shalaparni), Uraria picta (Prishnaparni), Solanum indicum (Brihati), Solanum xanthocarpum (Kantakari), Tribulus terrestris (Gokshura), Aegle bruhat (Bilva), Clerodendron premnoses (Agnimantha), Oroxylum indicum (Shyonaka), Gmelina arborea (Gambhari), Pterospermum suaveolens (Patala), Sida cordifolia (Bala), Boerhavia diffusa (Punarnava), Ricinus communis (Erandamula), Phaseolus trilobus (Mudgaparni), Teramnus labialis (Mashaparni), Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari), Tinospora cordifolia (Geevaka), Leptademia reticulata (Jivanthi), Withania somnifera (Medha), Bambusa arundanacia (Rishabhaka), Imperata cylindrica (Darba), Saccharum spontaneum (Kshara), Oryza sativum (Kshalimula) and Saccharum officinalis (Ikshumula). The feeding method adopted was-mixing the normal feed powder with rasayana in equal proportions. This was then pressed into pellets, which become hard and ideal for chewing by mice.

Slide preparation and chromosome analysis


The animals were sacrificed after eight weeks of Rasayana treatment. Colchicine (0.05%)at a dose of 0.5 mL was injected into each animal 90 min prior to sacrifice. Bone marrow was processed and slides prepared by routine air-drying technique.[16] In brief, the femur bones were dissected and bone marrow was flushed into hypotonic solution [0.56% potassium chloride (KCl)]. The resulting cell suspension was mixed thoroughly and incubated at 37°C for 30 min. After centrifugation, the cell pellets were resuspended in chilled methanol/acetic acid (3:1 v/ v) as fixative and this procedure was repeated thrice. Finally the pellet was resuspended in fresh fixative, and the cell suspension dropped on clean, non-greasy, pre-chilled microslides using a fine-tipped Pasteur pipette. Air-dried slides were coded and stained with giemsa. They were screened microscopically for the presence of chromosomal aberrations such as chromatid breaks, chromatid exchanges, intrachromatid deletions, triradials, chromosome breaks, dicentrics, rings and minutes. In each treatment group, a minimum of 1000 well-spread metaphase plates were scored. Statistical analysis of results was carried out using one way ANOVA.

Analysis of mitotic index (MI)


Mitotic Index was employed to analyze potential toxicity of BR in terms of cell proliferation. To analyze mitosis rates in different treatment groups, the number of mitotic cells in a population of at least 5,000 cells (1000 cells/animal) was scored for each treatment schedule and controls. Mitotic index was calculated using % MI = (No. of cells in mitosis /Total No. of cells scored) (100).

Sperm count and sperm morphology assay


Sperm counts were carried out according to the method described by Searle and Beechey[17] Paired capita were macerated in 1-2 ml 1% (w/v) trisodium citrate, and the resulting suspension was further diluted with 2 or 4 ml of trisodium citrate, depending on caput weight. After thorough mixing, the number of spermatozoa was counted on an improved Neubauer haemocytometer. Statistical significance was calculated using one way ANOVA for observed differences between treatment groups and controls.


For analysis of Sperm shape abnormalities,[18] each suspension was mixed with 1% Eosin Y in a 10:1 ratio. The mixture was allowed to stand for 30 minutes and slides were then made by smearing on staining solution and allowing them to air dry overnight. Coded slides were then examined by microscopy for the presence of different sperm shape abnormalities – pin head, sword head, triangle, hookless, amorphous, double headed, double tailed and other conspicuous abnormalities. A minimum of 2000 sperms were counted per animal, and results subjected to one way ANOVA.

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Most Ayurvedic drugs and drug formulations are principally derived from herbs and plants. In general, Rasayanas are nutrition promoters, but some are specific to certain organs or tissues; for example, Medhya Rasayana for brain, Hridya Rasayana for heart, Twachya Rasayana for skin, Chaksusya Rasayana for eyes and others. Similarly, Rasayanas promoting nutrition relevant to bio-losses occurring in different phases of the life span are age-specific.[19]


BR is an example of such a Medhya Rasayana comprising more than 35 different plant extracts. Its main ingredients, listed in toto above, are extracts of Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis. It is reported to retard brain aging, and help in regeneration of neural tissues, besides producing antistress, adaptogenic and memory enhancing effects.[19] However, whether it damages DNA, or possesses other genotoxic effects is not known. The present study was undertaken to address these questions in in vivo mouse systems.


In this context, the Table 1 data show no evidence for BR-induced chromosomal aberrations. The great proportion of observed abnormalities are chromatid breaks the frequencies of which are equal to those of controls at the 2 g and 4 g levels, where most effects would be expected. Even the slightly elevated 1g level (0.024 ± 0.011) is neither significantly different from controls (0.016 ± 0.008), nor of any absolute significance. The only possible note of caution is the appearance of a tiny proportion of chromosomal breaks B” at the 4 g level, a result again not suggestive of problems, which might even be spurious, and should be checked.

Table 1

Table 1

Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations observed after treatment of Brahma rasayana in mouse bone marrow cells


In short, Table 1 data suggest that BR does not elicit genotoxicity in in vivo mouse test systems. This may not be surprising, for Sharma et al.[20] have demonstrated that Emblica officinalis plant extract, one of Brahma Rasayana's chief ingredients, has an inhibitory effect on mutagen-induced chromosomal anomalies in Swiss albino mice. Oral administration of plant extract (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) for 7 days together with single doses of the mutagens, Benzo(a)pyrene (125 mg/kg body weight) or cyclophosphamide (40 mg/kg body weight intraperitonially), significantly reduced observed frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in Swiss albino mice compared to treatment with mutagens alone. They also observed increased levels of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S transferase.[20]


In our experiments, dosages (1g to 4g) were between 2.5% and 13% of body weight (30-40 g) i.e. 25 g to 130g/kg body weight, so that the ingredient Embilica officinalis was being consumed at a comparable rate, and might be expected to have conferred a similar degree of protection on the experimental animals.


In toxicology testing, the US Federal agencies, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and international bodies like Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), have suggested protocols and guidelines for identifying adverse reproductive effects, for industry to use when testing pesticides, industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals and food additives for potential reproductive toxicity in laboratory animals[21]. In the male reproductive system, reduced sperm count and increased sperm abnormalities are among standard criteria used to characterize toxic agents that may cause fertility problems in treated subjects[8]. Results of sperm abnormality analysis are very interesting. Rasayana treatment apparently gives total protection against sword shaped, banana shaped and double tailed deformations, and excellent protection against triangle and hookless deformations, although differences in total sperm abnormalities between rasayana-dosed animals and controls did not appear significant, possibly because of increases in pin-head abnormality. The two remaining deformations, double headed and amorphous produced mixed results. Overall, the data therefore indicates that BR confers protection against certain kinds of sperm abnormality. Moreover, sperm count data in rasayana-treated animals consistently showed slight but not significant increases in sperm count compared to controls. Similarly, Mitotic analysis showed consistent increases in the number of mitotic cells in all three treatment groups [Table 4] of which none reached significance.


CONCLUSIONS


These results suggest that use of BR as an adjuvant in cancer radiotherapy may produce beneficial effects. Together with our results, they suggest that BR does not possess genotoxic activity. We noted absence of significant body weight changes in BR-treated animals compared to age-matched controls, nor was there any treatment related mortality, or any other sign of adverse effects at the tested dosage levels.

Body weight of BR treated mice compared to control groups. The groups of mice were either treated with BR or with the regular feed at indicated proportions as mentioned in materials and methods. Animals were weighed weekly and recorded. Duration of treatment ...

The results taken together suggested to the scientists that BR does not elicit genotoxic effects in the mouse system, rather that it is a moderate enhancer of reproductive and mitotic cellularity, and a protector against certain kinds of sperm abnormality.

According to Sushruta, “Bala” is defined as “the factor due to which one obtains the nourishment and stability of Mamsa dhatu (~the muscular tissues of the body), ability to perform various tasks efficiently, good complexion, clearness and pleasantness of voice along with clear and efficient working of all the organs either external like Jnyaanendriya (sense organs) or Karmendriya (organs with motor functions) and internal like Manas (mind), Aatma (spirit), etc”.[3]

In Sushruta the word “Bala” refers to “Ojus” also[3] which has a function of maintaining the “Bala” of the body. In-fact many authors of Ayurveda are of the opinion that Bala should be referred to “Ojus”. The word “Bala” also denotes the normal “Kapha dosha” as it has the function of providing Bala for the body normally. It is also considered as “Oja” by Charaka.[4,5]


Further Charaka also classifies Bala as three types namely Sahaja (natural), Kalaja (seasonal and age) and Yuktikrita (act of intelligence).[6] Among the three, the Yuktikrita type is explained as the Bala that is developed by activities specially performed for increasing the same. These interventions include various exercises, Yoga, food articles and drugs having Rasayana (~a general tonic that nourishes all the tissues of the body) and Vajikarana (~an action that involves nourishment to the Shukra primarily) properties.[6] According to Chakrapani, the food includes the articles like meat, ghee, etc. and activities includes rational practice of rest and exercise while Yoga refers to various medicinal preparations that are used in the treatment as Rasayana and Vajikarana. The concept is more towards the explanation of acquired immunity. This also tends towards the explanation of concept regarding bioenergy. In this context, Bala is considered as effect of the food, medicine or activities which are having the action of Balya.



BALYA ACTION IN AYURVEDA


The action Balya is defined as “Balaaya hitam balyam” which refers to substances those are beneficial and tend to increase Bala of an individual.[7]


As per the review of Bala concept, the Balya action possesses different dimensions which are to be assessed to ascertain complete action with respect to a given drug. Hence, it is important to have a review of the action that is necessary to understand the modalities of its assessment.


Emergence of concepts of immunity, bioenergy and nutritional supplements in the contemporary science have given an opportunity for scientific validation of concept of Bala and related Balya action.



The first group Balya action consists of nourishing factors responsible for providing necessary nutrients to ensure stability of certain tissues and organs. They include substances that possess actions such as bulk promoters, hematinics, stomachic, intestinal tonics, nervine tonics, cardiac tonics and vascular tonics. The effects of such drugs are usually on a certain part ensuring its stability and nutrition. It may not have a generalized effect or that may have secondary action on other parts.


The second group of action consists of those provide a generalized effect. They have a primary effect of providing enough energy to ensure generalized stability of the body and strengthening it by protecting against any intrusion by various types of pathogens. They include substances that possess actions like generalized tonics, anti-periodic, food substances with high nutritional value, nutritional supplements and activities that help in increasing the bioenergy of the individual like Yoga.


The third group of action regarded as Balya consists of those which provide necessary supplementation for the sustenance of normal Kapha dosha. They are usually considered as secretions or fluids that are responsible for the protection of body's vital organs, especially the brain, heart, joints, etc. As most of these fluids mainly contain proteins they are usually supplemented with nutritional supplements. They include substances like general tonics, medicated ghee, medicated oils, cardio tonics and therapies like oil massages.


METHODS TO EVALUATE THE BALYA ACTION OF DRUGS


The Balya actions with of various substances, either medicaments or dietary substances are clearly mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. The assessment of this action is done by examining Bala of the individual with respect to the method of Balya action. Charaka Samhita explained the assessment of Bala as per Vyayamashakti.[8] The term Vyayama in turn is defined as the activity that produces exertion.[9] The quantification of exercise is subjective and needs objective approach to obtain the proper scheme for the comprehensive evaluation of the action.


On the basis of the observations regarding Bala, the drugs that are grouped under the heading of Balya in Ayurveda can be reclassified into three headings namely:


    That increases the Mamsa dhatu or muscular tissues of the body

    Immunomodulators and bioenergy

    That which enhances lubrication in the body.


The Balya action of drug may have at least of the the three above listed effects. Hence a comprehensive plan with all the three major dimensions is required to evaluate a Balya drug.



The methods for the evaluation of the three dimensions of Balya Karma


The TMT or the Bruce treadmill test is a standardized procedure used to evaluate the cardiovascular fitness of athletes or anyone else for that matter. It is one of the methods for the assessment of volume of maximum oxygen (VO2 max) which refers to the maximum amount of oxygen that an individual can utilize during intense or maximal exercise. It is one of the factors that can determine a person's capacity to perform sustained exercise and is linked to aerobic endurance. It is also used to estimate the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) with respect to an individual. The MET, or simply metabolic equivalent, is a physiological concept expressing the energy cost of physical activities as multiples of resting metabolic rate.


The immunoassay is a biochemical test that meas

image210

TAOIST TRADITION

All Quotes by Abbott Li Shi Fu, Master at Five Immortals Temple on Bai Ma Shan, China


General Philosophy & Concepts of Therapeutics:



Daoyin  Yangsheng Gong – Longevity


« Five Dragons Skill to Expel Diseases and Prolong Life»


“Spit out the old, take in the new, support the upright, dispel the evil, circulate the eight vessels, remove illness, and prolong life. Daoyin Yangsheng Gong longevity practice is comprised of simple movements aligned with the breath. It is designed to improve and restore health, dredge the meridians, remove disease, prolong life, replenish original qi and increase power of immune system by strengthening the connective tissue, tendons, joints, and increasing flow of qi and blood. It is divided into 3 sections. The first section made up of 9 yogic movements, second section is 9 movements of special breathing technique combined with circular movement of arms, third section is 9 standing meditation postures to cultivate internal energy. A vital and treasured practice for everyone.”


Outside of Western Medicine [Alternative longevity Healing Therapy]


“The scope of longevity theories is vast and comprehensive, and details each and every aspect of life.  In Daoist medicine, the theories and objectives of longevity are called ‘The Dao of Longevity’ and  the methods and skills of longevity are called ‘The Art of Longevity’.”


“The Dao of Longevity is divided four main categories:


Heavenly Section, Earthly Section, Human Section and Harmony Section”


“These four categories broadly outline the transmission of nine thousand years of Chinese culture,  which encompass the concepts of Heaven and Earth, Yin and Yang, the five elements, Feng Shui,  religious faith, Chinese medicine, diet, folk customs, Daoist Yoga, and other aspects of longevity theories.  Daoist guidelines are the unification of Heaven and Humans, to be in tune with nature, to grasp  Yin-Yang, and invert the trigrams Qian and Kun.  These concepts therefore emphasis the need to not violate the natural order, and to value the  integrative harmony between humans, nature, and society.”


“Just like it is said in the 《The Yellow Emperor’s Internal Classic》:

‘Above, know the heavenly bodies,

Below, know the earthly principles,

in the the centre, know human affairs,

thus becoming everlasting’.


“Therefore one must attach importance to the maintenance of the physical form. One must also give  priority to the regulation of the mind, the consciousness and the psyche. Moreover, one should  safeguard the spirit and perfect the form, and simultaneously protect the form and sublimate the  spirit. In addition, one must unite movement and stillness, dually cultivate virtue and conduct, be clear about the principles, acquire an exquisite skill-sets, and only then can one claim to truly know,  truly revere, and truly nourish and protect life.”


“(1) The Heavenly Section:

The Heavenly Dao, the Heavenly Time, the four seasons, the eight important lunar dates,  the Yin-Yang, the eight characters, Pre-Heaven, Cause-Effect, karmic retribution, higher and  multiple dimensions, transgressions, faith, thoughts, consciousness, inhibitions, the Way and  Virtue, compassion and love and so on. One should contemplate all formless energetic fields and external causative factors that exert  an influence on health.”


“(2) The Earthly Section:

I. Family Home’s Interior:

Environment, air, Yin-Yang, Five Elements, direction of the door, layout of the  living room, bedroom, kitchen and toilet, the degree of dampness and dryness, light and  sound, magnetism and electricity, new houses versus old houses, new furniture  versus old furniture, haunted abode, style of furniture, arts and crafts, designs and  patterns, air-conditioning, antiques, ancestral shrines, spirit powers, murderous  weapons, animals, plants, feng shui and so on.  One must ponder about all energetic fields and objects that exert an influence on  health within the family.”


“II.Family Home’s Exterior:

Five Elements, Feng Shui, sound and light, water and electricity, mountains and  forests, high and low, green and white, paths and roads, neighbors, location and  grounds, history of the place, ancestral shrines, temples, churches, energetic fields’  magnetism and so on.  One must take into consideration all environmental factors, five elements and  energetic fields that could have an effect on health outside one’s home.”


“(3) Human Section:

Everyday life-style, conduct and manners, seven emotions, eight desires, diet, clothes and  utilities, habits, movement and stillness, work and rest, hobbies and addictions, manual  labor, biology and its trans formative phases such as puberty, poverty and luxury, lifestyle,  type of work, enterprises and career, above and below, flat and house mates, hereditary  legacy, relations and so on. One must take into account all material matters and internal factors, as well as energetic fields that affect health.”


“(4) Harmony Section:

1. Heaven, Earth, man, laws, destiny and harmony.

2. Prevention of threatening disease, Regulation of initial illness,  Healing of those already sick, and contemplation of the reasons after recovery.

3. Begging the doctor for help, pleading for medicine, the five element correspondences and healing oneself.

4. Suitable methods and medicine according to the person, differentiating and administering the treatment.

5. Diet, herbal medicine, pellets, pills, pastes and powders; decoctions, alcohol, oil and tea; acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping and prick-bleeding; scraping, massage, rinsing, immersing; usage of non-inhaled smoke, fumigating, fire and steaming; sound, Qi, numerals and trigrams;movement, stillness; fasting and Dao Yin;mantras, talisman, repentance and prayers; erecting an altar, ritual, recitation of scripture and prayer paper; shifting form and changing environment.

6. Alternative treatment for terminal illnesses, a great pledge and vow, becoming a new person.


‘Life and death only exist in your thoughts. Let go of attachments and prolong life…’

This is a crude outline and general idea -a drop in the ocean. In Chinese they say:

‘One hair of nine oxen.’”



“Medical Qigong Healing is a method where people pass through a certain training practicing their gong/skill long-term in order to generate distinct internal qi, a distinct bio-energetic field, a distinct bio-electricity and magnetic field as well as other forces, via various types of applications one can affect the sick person’s physique and trigger a change of their body and mind, thus achieving the result of removing disease, improving health, strengthen the body and prolonging life.”

 

“Internal energy healing is cultivated and practiced in select courses. There are also opportunities for the sick to come and receive healing work, no matter how serious the ailment, but more importantly one can learn self-healing practices, ways of changing lifestyle and thought.”


The Energetic Field of the Human Body:


“The human body is a very sensitive information field. It possesses bio-electricity, bio-luminosity, bio-wave, bio-magnetism and bio-heat. Every instant and every moment they all are carry out. To the naked eye the human energetic field cannot be seen, but this type of power is great and immense, just like the gravitational forces of the ten thousand things. There is not a single moment or a single instant when this type of field is without effects on your human life. If a person’s Qi-qualities are very good, his body healthy, his exterior vigorous, if the person self-cultivates and follows the Way and its virtues, this person’s magnetic field therefore is good. On the contrary if the magnetic field is poor, this means that the exterior has no vigor, is listless and in low spirits. ..”


What is it that can affect our field?


“(1): The energetic field of your thoughts”


“Our thoughts have an effect on our endocrine system:”


“What are you thinking?”

“What are you believing in?”


“This in turn will determine what kind of magnetic field you will have. If you are optimistic and your thoughts revolve around trying to improve yourself, your energetic field will also be positive and progressive. On the contrary if your thoughts are negative and pessimistic, your field will therefore be pessimistic and negative.”


“‘When you plant melons, you will harvest melons.

When you plant beans, you will harvest beans.’”


“Subsequently if you want to increase your positive energetic field, you must have exactly optimistic and positive thinking patterns. By knowing these rules and principles you will be able to use the great and magnificent power of thought. Moreover you will be able to become self-confident let alone being able to understand the correct, optimistic and positive use of your thoughts. Thus the communication between the information, vibration and vibrational frequencies of human, heaven and earth, as well as nature and the ten thousand things will be truly unobstructed.”


“(2): The Power of Love”


“‘Love is the mightiest power in the universe

because it is in unanimous harmony with the cosmos.’”


“Love is your positive power of the human energetic field. Only by showing love, you will be able to attract love. That is why you must love all people that surround you:”

“Love your friends, father and mother, your beloved ones, relatives, fellow workers;

Love your adversaries and enemies, love planet earth and ten thousand things, for each and every flower and grass. The more you show love, the more power of this field of universal love you will accumulate and at the same time the gain of love will be equally greater.”


“The masters said:”


“‘When virtue is high, Gong will be equally high.

When the water rises, the boat floats up.’”

“In any situation one must not disregard or conceal one’s conscience,

Since you could not possibly hide from your thoughts.

Raise your head three Chinese feet and there will be spirit lights.

Be reverent towards them.

Benevolence is rewarded with good, wickedness with evil.

If you have expenses, you will be compensated.’”


Loving other people is exactly loving yourself. Helping others is exactly helping yourself. In society and in everyday life you will by chance encounter people with higher powers. All of them are always so positive and optimistic, always so compassionate, kind-hearted and forgiving, always possessing the power to make an impact. If you envy them, and if you are equally deeply attracted to them, simultaneously also hoping to become like them…”


“This is what is meant by:”


“‘He who is stained by cinnabar turns red.

He who is stained by ink turns black.’”


“The power of the energetic field will mutually affect the outcome.”




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UNANI

These are notes received by Dr. Mohammad Sahel

Regeneration happens at level of skin and level of internal organs


After taking medicine - wrinkles in skin change, and then  more digestion effects and metabolic activity in internal organs are noticed


Rejuvenation process starts very easily without taking long time or huge amount of investment.


Unani regeneration does utilize medicine

 but its based on honey - as a carrier - its the main magic of this system.  It

goes deeper into the system…



They boost the liver's metallic activity first - boosting the liver system is important because if liver is very healthy all internal organs benefit and this iwill effect grey hairs and wrinkle skin.


entire body rejuvenation..


Brownish herbs and minerals  powder called  haldenka

mixed with honey...


(unani - silver powder - 1gram is usually 100 rupees in market)


oil application

maintains system during rejuvenation.


sexual virility - ability - energy  for brain…all improved


6 months process - within 20 days noticeable


In Unani - lifestyle very important


With therapy cupping - and singi - cupping with horns is used.



First cleansing ( 3 months)

special place, special food - with daily martial arts training


but nowadays people are too busy…so few have had the experience, other than the royalty and nobility.


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